Business Writing Tip #193 – Pivot Words

A good writer will give their reader signs to follow; markers to help the reader follow the path through the writing, connecting the ideas. Many of these words are prepositions and conjunctions.Signpost words

I have taken the following information, including the excellent explanations, from the Dartmouth College website.

1.     Additive wordsAlso
These say, "Here's more of the same coming up. It's just as important as what we have already said."Further
moreover
and
furthermore
too
besides
in addition
2.     Equivalent wordsas well as
They say, "It does what I have just said, but it does this too."at the same time
similarly
equally important
likewise
3.     Amplification wordsfor example (e.g.)
The author is saying, "I want to be sure that you understand my idea; so here's a specific instance."specifically
as
for instance
such as
like
4.     Alternative wordseither/or
These point out, "Sometimes there is a choice; other times there isn't."other than
neither/nor
otherwise
5.     Repetitive wordsagain
They say, "I said it once, but I'm going to say it again in case you missed it the first time."in other words
to repeat
that is (i.e.)
6.     Contrast and change wordsBut
"So far I've given you only one side of the story; now let's take a look at the other side."on the contrary
still
conversely
on the other hand
though
despite
instead of
yet
however
rather than
regardless
nevertheless
even though
whereas
in spite of
notwithstanding
7.     Cause and effect wordsaccordingly
"All this has happened; now I'll tell you why."since
then
because
so
thus
consequently
hence
therefore
for this reason
8.     Qualifying wordsIf
These say, "Here is what we can expect. These are the conditions we are working under."Although
unless
providing
whenever
9.     Concession wordsAccepting the data
They say, "Okay! We agree on this much."Granted that
Of course
10. Emphasising words Above all
They say, "Wake up and take notice!"More important
Indeed
11. Order Words Finally
The author is saying, "You keep your mind on reading: I'll keep the numbers straight."Second
then
first
next
last
12. Time words Afterwards
"Let's keep the record straight on who said what and especially when."Meanwhile
now
before
subsequently
presently
formerly
ultimately
previously
later
13. Summarising wordsfor these reasons
These say, "We've said many things so far. Let's stop here and pull them together."in brief
in conclusion
to sum up

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